7. Employee costs €/000 211,656

Employee costs include €/000 11,439 mainly relating to costs for mobility plans for the Pontedera, Noale and Martorelles production sites.
The decrease recorded in the year is due to the reduction in average staff numbers and to the greater impact on the work force in India.

 20132012Change
In thousands of Euros 
Salaries and wages 150,484 163,377 (12,893)
Social security contributions 40,800 43,097 (2,297)
Termination benefits 8,271 8,681 (410)
Other costs 12,101 8,264 3,837
Total211,656223,419(11,763)
 

Below is a breakdown of the headcount by actual number and average number:

Average number
20132012Change
Level 
Senior management 96 95 1
Middle management 573 574 (1)
White collars 2,161 2,202 (41)
Blue collars 5,343 5,477 (134)
Total8,1738,348(175)

Number as of
31 December 201331 December 2012Change
Level
Senior management 95 96 (1)
Middle management 572 573 (1)
White collars 2,132 2,214 (82)
Blue collars 4,889 5,246 (357)
Total7,6888,129(441)
   

Changes in employee numbers in the two periods are compared below:

As of 31.12.2012IncomingOutgoingRelocationsAs of 31.12.13
Level
Senior management 96 8 (11)2 95
Middle management 573 35 (59)23 572
White collars 2,214 200 (263)(19) 2,132
Blue collars 5,246 3,062 (3,413)(6) 4,889
Total (*) 8,129 3,305 (3,746)0 7,688
(*) of which fixed-term contracts
 

The reduction in staff is mainly due to the Spanish site being closed down and a general downturn in demand which decreased fixed-term contracts.
Average employee numbers were affected by seasonal workers in the summer (on fixed-term employment contracts).
In fact the Group uses fixed-term employment contracts to handle typical peaks in demand in the summer months.

Distribution of the workforce by geographic segment as of 31 December 2013

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